Experimentally induced puromycine aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) in rats: evaluation of angiogenic protein platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) expression in glomeruli
© Seckin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 4 November 2011
Accepted: 16 February 2012
Published: 16 February 2012
In experimentally induced puromycine aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) animal models, nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease and focal and segmental sclerosis-like nephritis similar to that in human is demonstrated; however, the real mechanism of PAN is not yet elucidated. Platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), an endothelial mitogen protein, is believed to take part in microvessel formation and in stimulation of angiogenesis and its expression has not been totally demonstrated in PAN rats yet. In this study, we aimed to examine PD-ECGF expression in acute and chronic PAN induced in rats and find out the association between its expression and the stages of angiogenesis in kidney.
For the experiment, twenty-four Male Wistar Albino rats were used and divided into four groups; control group (n = 6), pre-proteinuria group (n = 6), acute group (n = 6) and chronic group (n = 6). We compared statistically all data by One-way ANOVA Test followed by Dunn Multiple Comparison Test.
Proteinurea levels in control and pre-proteinuria groups were not statistically different; however, it was remarkably higher in the acute nephrosis group and significantly greater in the chronic nephrosis group than control group (p < 0.0025). In pre-proteinuria group, the serum albumin and creatinine clearances also did not significantly differ from the control group. On the other hand, in the acute and chronic nephrosis groups, serum albumin and creatinine clearances progressively decreased (p < 0.05). In our immunohistochemical studies, we showed elevated PD-ECGF expression in glomeruli of acute and chronic PAN rats. Microscopic and ultrastructural appearances of the glomeruli of acute and chronic PAN showed various sequential steps of angiogenesis, macrophages and immature capillaries with primitive lumens and apoptotic endothelial cells in the increased mesangial matrix.
It is reported that acute and chronic PAN progressively increase PD-ECGF expression and following induction of angiogenesis in the affected glomeruli.
Keywordspuromycine aminonucleoside nephritis PD-ECGF angiogenesis macrophage ultrastructure rat
Experimentally induced puromycine aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), generally used as a model for podocyte injury, has the increase of mesangial matrix in glomeruli leading to massive proteinuria. It has been similar to the effects of minimal change disease and focal and segmental sclerosis-like nephritis in human [1–7]. However, the real mechanism of PAN is not yet elucidated.
Platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF/thymidine phosphorylase), isolated as an endothelial mitogen from platelets, is a 45-kDa angiogenic protein which stimulates the growth and chemotaxis of endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo [8–16]. Various studies have shown that PD-ECGF is one of the potent promoters of angiogenesis and mediates angiogenesis during many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Main sources of PD-ECGF are the infiltrating cells and especially macrophages, however, the mechanisms by which PD-ECGF contributes to angiogenesis are still unclear [8, 10, 17–21]. PD-ECGF is also expressed in the endothelium of various tissues .
It was reported that PD-ECGF expression is elevated in areas of interstitial fibrosis in scarred kidneys because local oxygen supply is most likely to be diminished in these areas due to obliteration of the postglomerular capillary network, tubules and fibroblasts and that its level of expression is correlated with the number of microvessels in various pathological conditions [17, 20, 22–24]. Moreover, experimental and clinicopathological studies have shown that the losses of podocytes  and renal capillaries  causing reduction of oxygen and nutritional supply to the kidney are closely linked with chronic disease progression and renal scarring. As known, hypoxia is a common stimulus for both angiogenesis and inflammation leading to the accumulation of macrophages and other immune cells , and for increased production of growth factors [28–31].
In this study, it was aimed to investigate PD-ECGF expression and angiogenesis in the glomeruli of acute and chronic puromycine aminonucleoside (PA) induced nephrotic rats with the view of the fact that hypoxia which might be developed due to loss of existing capillaries within the mesangial matrix may cause angiogenesis.
Preparation of Animals
Twenty-four young male Wistar albino rats weighing 90-120 g (Experimental Animals Reproduction and Research Laboratory, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Turkey) were housed in individual cages in a temperature- and humidity- controlled room with a 12-h light/dark cycle. They were fed with standard rat chow and had free access to tap water.
Injection intervals and amounts of all groups
Total Injection Number
Group I: Control
1 ml isotonic NaCl
Group II: Pre-proteinurea
1.67 mg PA per 100 g body weight in 1 ml isotonic NaCl
Group III: Acute Nephrosis
1.67 mg PA per 100 g body weight in 1 ml isotonic NaCl
Group IV: Chronic
Weekly in first 3 weeks Biweekly in the rest weeks
1.67 mg PA per 100 g body weight in 1 ml isotonic NaCl
All groups: Proteinuria, Serum Albumin, Creatinine -Clearance, Weight
Proteinuria mg/24 hours
Serum Albumin g/dl
3.12 ± 2.40
105 ± 13.78
4.87 ± 3
3.23 ± 0.10
0.55 ± 0.80
140 ± 15.49
At start > 3. inj.
4.59 ± 3.70
100 ± 15.80
5.57 ± 2
3.02 ± 0.15
0.49 ± 0.80
At start > 9.inj.
5.04 ± 2
101 ± 0.80
91.34 ± 91*
2.50 ± 0.63**
0.38 ± 0.28**
At start > 7.inj.
5.18 ± 2.20
100 ± 8.94
247.5 ± 90*
2.35 ± 0.38**
0.29 ± 0.10**
210 ± 24.49**
Values of Proteinuria in acute nephrosis group/1-9. injections
Proteinuria (mg/24 hours)
Light and electron microscopical analyses
After necropsy, the left kidney cortex was immediately divided into 1 mm3 pieces for transmission electron microscopy. They were firstly fixed in 4% glutaraldehyde (Sigma, G5882, USA) in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), post-fixed by 1% OsO4 prepared in the same buffer solution, dehydrated with graded ethanol (Merck, Germany) and, embedded into araldite medium (G4901 Sigma Chemical Co St. Louis, MO, USA). Semi-thin sections were cut into 1 μm thickness by glass knives to help of the ultramicrotome (Reichert UM 2 and UM 3, Austria) and stained with 1% toluidine blue (prepared with 1% borax in bidistilled water). The sections were examined under a binocular light microscope (Leica, Germany) using immersion objective. Ultra-thin sections were obtained in 50 nm thickness onto copper grids (300 mesh) with the same microtome, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and they were investigated by transmission electron microscope (Zeiss Electron Microscope 9 and Electron Microscope 10, Oberkochen, Germany).
Cortical renal tissues were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. For detection of angiogenesis, TP/PD-ECGF (Thymidine Phosphorylase/Platelet Derived-Endothelial Cell Growth Factor) protein immunohistochemical staining was performed. The sections of 5 μm thickness were placed onto slides coated with poly-L-Lysine, (PLL, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) then deparaffinized in toluene and rehydrated in graded alcohol series. Histostain-Plus™ Broad Spectrum Kit (95-9943-B Zymed Lab. Ins. San Francisco CA, USA) was used for immunoperoxidase staining. Immunohistochemistry procedure was performed using a combination of microwave oven heating for antigen retrieval and standard streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked by hydrogen peroxide (3%). Each section was then incubated for 15 minutes at room temperature with blocking solution to block cellular peroxidase activity. Sections were incubated with anti-TP/PD-ECGF antibody (host range: human, mouse, rat; prediluted; LabVision Corp., USA) for 1 hour at room temperature, then washed with PBS. Specific staining was performed with biotinlated universal secondary antibody, horseradish peroxidase streptavidin-complex, and amino-ethyl-carbazole as chromogen. Sections were counter-stained with Mayer's hematoxylin. As for negative control, distilled water was performed instead of primary antibody and as positive control, a malignant melanoma tissue was used.
Semi-quantitation of immunoperoxidase staining
In all groups, number of cases and immunostaining for PD-ECGF
Groups (n = 6)
Number of Cases
Statistical Analysis of Total Angiogenic Stages
Total angiogenic stage counts in all groups
Groups (n = 6)
Average angiogenic stage counts in 10 glomerules
0.12 ± 0.04
1.08 ± 0.03**
2.13 ± 0.14**
4.87 ± 0.21**
Statistical Analysis of Urine and Blood Data
Proteinuria, serum albumin, creatinine-clearance, weight data of all groups were given as mean ± standard deviation (median) and compared by Kruskal Wallis ANOVA followed by Dunn Multiple Comparison Test. In all comparisons, statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05 and p < 0.0025 (Table 4).
Urine and blood analyses
In control and experimental groups, proteinuria (mg/24 hours), serum albumin (g/dl), creatinine clearance (ml/minute) and weight (g) are shown in Table 2. In all PAN induced rats, proteinuria increased suddenly and significantly after the fifth injection (6th day). The 'pre-proteinuria group' was just defined as the group two days before this rising of proteinuria (see Table 3). As it is shown in Table 2, proteinuria levels in control and pre-proteinuria group were not significantly different from each other (p < 0.0025). Their serum albumin, creatinine clearances and weights also were not significantly different (p < 0.05). However, proteinuria in the acute group significantly increased. Serum albumin and creatinine clearances significantly decreased.
In the chronic nephrosis group, proteinuria was remarkably higher than it was in the acute group and about significantly higher than it was in the controls (p < 0.0025). Serum albumin decreased significantly and creatinine clearance decreased to nearly half of that in the control group (p < 0.05) and it was accepted as an evidence of glomerulopathology. In the rats of the chronic group, body weight rise to the two-fold of that in the controls due to the increase in fluid resorption (p < 0.05) (Table 2).
When total angiogenic stages of semi-thin sections were counted under light microscope in 10 glomeruli of each rat in all groups, mean values showed that angiogenetic stage numbers of pre-proteinurea, acute and chronic nephrosis groups were significantly different from control group and showed gradually increasing manner in experimental groups (Table 5).
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is not only a critical step in embryogenesis and wound healing, but also contributes to the pathogenesis of tumor growth and chronic inflammation [8, 10, 21, 23, 24]. It is a complex process involving extensive interaction between the cells, soluble factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Angiogenesis is initiated by vasodilatation and increased permeability. The formation of a vascular network requires different sequential steps including; the release of proteases from activated endothelial cells, degradation of the basement membrane surrounding the existing vessels, differentiation and migration of the endothelial cells into the interstitial space, endothelial cell proliferation forming tubular structures, lumen formation, generation of new basement membrane with the recruitment of pericytes and finally of fusion of newly formed vessels and initiation of blood flow [18, 34–39].
As it is well known, hypoxia results in both angiogenesis and inflammation , and thus the production of growth factors increases [28–31]. Angiogenesis provides oxygen and nutrients for the metabolic needs of the cells that are present at inflammatory sites . Therefore, we considered that the expanded avascular mesangial matrix regions of the glomeruli could induce the angiogenesis by creating a hypoxic state.
In our microscopic examinations, we observed an increased mesangial matrix with inflammatory areas including macrophages, and various steps of angiogenesis including vasodilatation and endothelial proliferation in pre-existing capillaries, as well as, angiogenic cell islands without basal lamina and lumen formation in immature capillaries containing basal lamina in glomeruli of acute and chronic PAN nephrotic rats. During angiogenesis, the transport of plasma proteins such as fibrinogen and plasminogen from the blood stream into the surrounding tissue is excessively increased. These plasma proteins provide a convenient environment for the migrating angiogenic cells . In our light microscopic studies, we observed angiogenic cell islands and immature capillaries surrounded by dense mesangial matrix areas. We considered that this situation could be correlated with highly concentrated plasma proteins leaked out the pre-existing dilated capillaries around this area.
The angiogenic cell islands can be easily distinguished from the surrounding cells by their big nuclei with peripherally located heterochromatin. These cell islands had no basal lamina yet. When the lumen formation of angiogenic cell islands were completed after the polarization stage, the basal lumina has appeared . As evidence to this argument, in our microscopic and ultrastructural images, we observed more basophilic cytoplasm of immature capillaries and prominent increase in the granular endoplasmic reticulum cisterns which is responsible for the formation of the basal lamina components. Moreover, some researchers have argued that endothelial apoptosis is effective on the primitive lumen formation stage of the angiogenic cell islands . In our study, we observed apoptotic endothelial cells with advanced lumen formation of immature capillaries in our ultrastructural images as a support this argument.
In our microscopic and ultrastructural images, macrophages were the most abundant cell type in the angiogenic regions of the increased avascular matrix. Various cell types and cell products induce or modulate angiogenesis. The major of these cells are macrophages. In all steps of angiogenesis, macrophages take place by their secretary activity. It was reported that they had angiogenic characteristics when exposed to low oxygen supply . Macrophages are among the main sources of metalloproteases (e.g. collagenases) and serine proteases (e.g. elastase and plasminogen activator). These enzymes can degrade ECM molecules, modulate the mechanical framework, and lead to the released ECM-bound growth factors. In addition to proteases, macrophages produce several factors that induce migration of endothelial cells. Most of them also support other stages of the angiogenic process such as proliferation or differentiation of endothelial cells. Their inducing effects on migration seem to be sufficient for the initial neovascularization as migrating endothelial cells can form sprouts without proliferation. Thus, macrophages release several factors that do not directly induce angiogenesis but act indirectly by attracting or activating angiogenic cells. This activity occurs in all phase of the angiogenic process [8, 18, 41]. Hence we considered that the macrophages in this increased avascular matrix were activated due to the presence of insufficient oxygen and induced the angiogenesis.
We also showed the existence of the foam cells in the expanded avascular mesangial matrix of glomeruli in PAN rats. In some diseases, e.g. focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and hyalinosis, mesangial cells (MCs) exhibit foam cell like morphology. These lipid-laden MCs have impaired phagocytic capacity and disrupted cytoskeletons. Studies have demonstrated that IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) induces MC to transform into foam cell by phagocytosing lipids [42, 43]. We considered that these cells frequently observed around the angiogenic regions could be also responsible from the development of angiogenesis like the other macrophages.
In scarred kidneys, it was reported that PD-ECGF expression is elevated and its level of expression is correlated with pathological angiogenesis [17, 20, 22–24]. In this study, we detected occasional angiogenic regions in expanded avascular mesangial matrix of the glomeruli in acute and chronic PAN induced rats. We showed elevated PD-ECGF immunostaining in the glomeruli of acute and chronic PAN induced rats. When we compared control and experimental groups, number of total angiogenic stages in experimental groups increased in parallel with PD-ECGF immuno-reactivity results (Table 4, 5). These results supported our ultrastructural findings observation related to angiogenesis development. Thus these findings are consistent with the results of recent studies that have indicated that PD-ECGF expression level is correlated with the number of microvessels in various pathological conditions and may contribute to neovascularization [17, 18, 20, 22–24]. Therefore, as many researchers, we expect that PD-ECGF may become one of the major targets of angiogenesis therapy in future .
In this study, we have thought that loss of existing capillaries within the increased mesangial matrix might cause hypoxia and thereby induce angiogenesis in acute and chronic PAN. Our findings have suggested that acute and chronic PAN causes progressively increased PD-ECGF expression and induce the angiogenesis in the glomeruli.
basic-fibroblast growth factor
hepatocyte growth factor
insulin-like growth factor-1
protein absorbtion granules
puromycine aminonucleoside nephrosis
phosphate buffer solution
protein platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor
modified trichlor acetyl acid method
vascular endothelial growth factor.
This work was supported by Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit of Istanbul University; Project Number: 1707/15082001. The authors thank Azize Gumusyazici and Ercument Boztas, the techniciancs of the electron microscopy laboratory in Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty.
- Kriz W, Gretz N, Lemley KV: Progression of glomerular diseases: Is the podocyte the culprit. Kidney International. 1998, 54: 687-697. 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00044.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim YH, Goyal M, Kurnit D, Wharram B, Wiggins J, Holzman L, Kershaw D, Wiggins R: Podocyte depletion and glomerulosclerosis have a direct relationship in the PAN-treated rat. Kidney International. 2001, 60: 957-968. 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.060003957.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim YH, Goyal M, Wharram B, Wiggins J, Kershaw D, Wiggins R: GLEPP1 receptor tyrosine phosphatase (Ptpro) in rat PAN nephrosis: A marker of acute podocyte injury. Nephron. 2002, 90 (4): 471-476. 10.1159/000054736.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krishnamurti U, Zhou B, Fan WW, Tsilibary E, Wayner E, Kim Y, Kashtan CE, Michael A: Puromycin aminonucleoside suppresses integrin expression in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Japan America Society of Nevada. 2001, 12 (4): 758-766.Google Scholar
- Grond J, Koudstaal J, Elema JD: Mesangial function and glomerular sclerosis in rats with aminonucleoside nephrosis. Kidney International. 1985, 27: 405-410. 10.1038/ki.1985.24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seckin I, Uzunalan M, Pekpak M: Acute puromycine aminonucleoside nephrosis, proteinuria, creatinin-clearance, serum albumin levels and the relationship of slit-pore count and ultrastructural changes of the corpusculum renale Malpighi. Cerrahpaşa Journal of Medicine. 2004, 35 (3): 102-114.Google Scholar
- Seckin I, Uzunalan M, Pekpak M: The relationship of renal function, glomerular ultrastructure and slitpore count chronic puromycine-aminonucleoside nephrosis. Official Journal of the Turkish society of Nephrology. 2007, 16 (3): 109-121.Google Scholar
- Zhang JM, Mizoi T, Shiiba KI, Sasaki I, Matsuno S: Expression of thymidine phosphorylase by macrophages in colorectal cancer tissues. World Journal of Gastroenteroogyl. 2004, 10 (4): 545-549.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Igawa H, Fujieda S, Kimura Y, Sugimoto C, Tanaka N, Ohtsubo T, Kato Y, Saito H: Influence of platelet-derived endothelial cell growt factor/thymidine phosphorylase on the cells cycle in head and neck sguamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Oncology Reports. 2003, 10 (4): 967-971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fox SB, Moghaddam A, Westwood M, Turley H, Bicknell R, Gatter KC, Harris AL: Platelet-derived endothelial cell growt factor/thymidine phosphorylase expression in normal tissue: an immunohistochemical study. Journal of Pathology. 1995, 176 (2): 183-190. 10.1002/path.1711760212.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brown NS, Bicknell R: Thymidine phosphorylase, 2-deoxy-D-ribose and angiogenesis. Biochemical Journal. 1998, 334: 1-8.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyazono K, Okabe T, Urabe A, Takaku F, Heldin CH: Purification and properties of an endothelial cell growth factor from human platelets. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1987, 262: 4098-4103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyazono K, Takaku F: Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor: structure and function. Japanese Circulation Journal. 1991, 55 (10): 1022-1026. 10.1253/jcj.55.1022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Epstein IR: Hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and vasoactive mediators. Human Molecular Biology: An Introduction to the Molecular Basis of Health and Disease. 2003, Italy: Cambridge University, 343-1Google Scholar
- Hagiwara K, Stenman G, Honda H, Sahlin P, Andersson A, Miyazono K, Heldin CH, Ishikawa F, Takaku F: Organization and chromosomal localization of the human platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor gene. Molecular Cell Biology. 1991, 11: 2125-2132.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishikawa F, Miyazono K, Hellman U, Drexler H, Wernstedt C, Hagiwara K, Usuki K, Takaku F, Risau W, Heldin CH: Identification of angiogenic activity and the cloning and expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Nature. 1989, 338: 557-562. 10.1038/338557a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Konda R, Sato H, Sakai K, Sato M, Orikasa S, Kimura N: Expression of platelet -derived endothelial cell growth factor and its potential role in up-regulation of angiogenesis in secondary to urinary tract diseases. American Journal of Pathology. 1999, 155 (5): 1587-1597. 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65475-2.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Costa C, Incio J, Soares R: Angiogenesis and chronic inflammation: cause or consequence. Angiogenesis. 2007, 10: 149-166. 10.1007/s10456-007-9074-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saito S, Tsuno NH, Sunami E, Hori N, Kitayama J, Kazama S, Okaji Y, Kawai K, Kanazawa T, Watanabe T, Shibata Y, Nagawa H: Expression of platelet -derived endothelial cell growth factor, in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2003, 38 (3): 229-237. 10.1007/s005350300041.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi Y, Bucana CD, Akagi Y, Liu W, Cleary KR, Mai M, Ellis LM: Significance of platelet -derived endothelial cell growth factor, in the angiogenesis of human gastric cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 1998, 4 (2): 429-434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saito S, Tsuno N, Nagawa H, Sunami E, Zhengxi J, Osada T, Kitayama J, Shibata Y, Tsuruo T, Muto T: Expression of platelet -derived endothelial cell growth factor correlates with good prognosis in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Cancer. 2000, 88: 42-49. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000101)88:1<42::AID-CNCR7>3.0.CO;2-M.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ignatescu MC, Gharehbaghi-Schnell E, Hassan A, Rezaie-Majd S, Kors hineck I, Schleef RR, Glogar HD, Lang IM: Expression of the angiogenic protein, platelet -derived endothelial cell growth factor, in coronary atheroscleratic plaques. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 1999, 19: 2340-2347. 10.1161/01.ATV.19.10.2340.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Isaka S, Sawai K, Tomiie M, Kamiura S, Koyama M, Azuma C, Ishiguro S, Murata Y, Saji F: Expression of platelet- derived endothelial cell growt factor/thymidine phosphorylase in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. International Journal of Oncology. 2002, 21 (2): 281-287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li W, Chiba Y, Kimura T, Morioka K, Uesaka T, Ihaya A, Muraoka R: Transmyocardial laser revascularization induced angiogesis of matrix metalloproteinases and platelet -derived endothelial cell growth factor. European Journal of Cardiothorac Surgery. 2001, 19: 56-163.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang G, Lai FM, Kwan BC, Lai KB, Chow KM, Li PK, Szeto CC: Podocyte loss in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis. American Journal of Hypertension. 2009, 22: 300-306. 10.1038/ajh.2008.360.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kang DH, Hughes J, Mazzali M, Schreiner GF, Johnson RJ: Impaired angiogenesis in the remnant kidney model: II. Vascular endothelial growth factor administration reduces renal fibrosis and stabilizes renal function. Journal of The American Society of Nephrology. 2001, 12: 1448-1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burtis CA, Ashwood R: Renal function and nitrogen metabolites. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 1999, 1204-1271. 3Google Scholar
- Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J: The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nature Medicine. 2003, 9: 669-676. 10.1038/nm0603-669.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Semenza GL, Shimoda LA, Prabhakar NR: Regulation of gene expression by HIF-1. Novartis Foundation Symposium. 2006, 272: 2-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Semenza GL: Vasculogenesis, Angiogenesis, and Arteriogenesis: Mechanisms of Blood Vessel Formation and Remodeling. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2007, 102: 840-847. 10.1002/jcb.21523.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yancopoulos GD, Davis S, Gale NW, Rudge JS, Wiegand SJ, Holash J: Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation. Nature. 2000, 407: 242-248. 10.1038/35025215.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi WS, Chung KJ, Chang MS, Chun JK, Lee HW, Hong SY: A turbidimetric determination of protein by trichloroacetic acid. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 1993, 16: 57-61. 10.1007/BF02974129.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hill C, Flyvbjerg A, Grønbaek H, Petrik J, Hill DJ, Thomas CR, Sheppard MC, Logan A: The renal expression of TGF-β isoform and their receptors in acute and chronic experimental diabetes in rats. Endocrinology. 2000, 141: 1196-1208. 10.1210/en.141.3.1196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hotchkiss KA, Ashton AW, Schwartz EL: Thymidine phosphorylase and 2-Deoxyribose Stimulate human endothelial cell migration by specific activation of the integrins 5β 1 and vβ3. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003, 21: 19272-19279.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Distler JH, Hirth A, Kurowska-Stolarska M, Gay RE, Gay S, Distler O: Angiogenic and angiostatic factors in the molekular control of angiogenesis. Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 2003, 47 (3): 149-161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liekens S, De Clercq E, Neyts J: Angiogenesis: A multistep process. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2001, 61: 253-270. 10.1016/S0006-2952(00)00529-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bayless KJ, Davis GE: The Cd42 and Rac 1 GTPases are required for capillary lumen formation in three-dimentional extracellular matrices. Journal of Cell Science. 2002, 115: 1123-1136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang S, Graham J, Kahn JW, Schwartz EA, Gerritsen ME: Functional roles for PECAM-1 (CD31) and VE-Cadherin (CD144) in tube assembly and lumen formation in three-dimensional collagen gels. American Journal of Pathology. 1999, 155: 887-895. 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65188-7.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bayless KJ, Salazar R, Davis GE: RGD-Dependent vacuolation and lumen formation observed during endothelial cell mophogenesis in three- dimensional fibrin matrices involves the αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins. American Journal of Pathology. 2000, 156: 1673-1683. 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65038-9.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tertemiz F, Kayisli UA, Arici A, Demir R: Apoptosis contributes to vascular lumen formation and vascular branching in human placental vasculogenesis. Biology of Reproduction. 2005, 72: 727-735. 10.1095/biolreprod.104.034975.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lamalice L, Le Boeuf F, Huot J: Endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis. American Journal of Pathology. 2007, 100: 782-794.Google Scholar
- Berfield AK, Abrass CK: IGF- 1 induces foam cell formation in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 2002, 50 (3): 395-403. 10.1177/002215540205000310.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hirano T: Lipoprotein abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney International. 1999, 56: 522-524.Google Scholar
- Ramesh KV, Shenoy AK: Endothelial Dysfunction: many ways to correct-trends that promise. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2003, 35: 73-82.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.