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Table 1 Modified biomaterials attempted to promote nerve regeneration.

From: Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

Biomaterials Modification/Method of fabrication Improved Properties Ref
Star-Poly(ethylene glycol) Incorporation of polysaccharide (Heparin) Tunable physical and mechanical properties to adopt specific tissue requirements [62]
Chitosan Modified with (γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) Mechanical strength [63]
Poly(sialic acid) Hydrogel modified with adsorbed poly-L-lysine or poly-L-ornithine or laminin or collagen Mechano compatibility; Cell adhesive property [64]
Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) Sheets impregnated with extracellular matrix molecules Cell adhesion and proliferation [65]
Poly(ε-caprolactone) Electrospinning and Thermal fiber bonding Mechanical strength [66]
Poly(ε-caprolactone) Aligned fibers by Electrospinning Contact guidance [67]
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Modified immersion precipitation method Selective permeability; Hydrophilicity [68]
Poly(D, L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) [PDLLA/CL] PPy coating substrate and PPy nanoparticle/PDLLA/CL composite Electrical cue for multitude of cell functions [69]
Chitosan Polylysine-functionalised thermoresponsive chitosan hydrogel Injectable scaffold; Mechano compatibility; Surface property (wettability, charge density) [70]
Poly(ε-caprolactone) Electrospinning (Polymer blending with collagen) Biological property (schwann cell adhesion, migration and differentiation) [71]
Collagen Hydrogel crosslinked with YIGSR peptide modified dendrimers Biological function (promote the growth of corneal epithelial cells and neurite outgrowth) [72]
Poly(glycerol-sebacate) Replica molding Micropatterned substrates; Flexibility; Surface degradable; Strong contact guidance response [73]
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microbraiding method Flexibility; Porosity [75]
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Low pressure injection molding Porosity; Longitudinally aligned channels; Mimics the geometry of native nerves [76]
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Fiber templating technique Oriented scaffold; Physical characteristics similar to soft tissue. [77]
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Liquid-liquid centrifugal casting Mechanical property similar to spinal cord [78]