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Table 1 Effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on offspring

From: Enhancement of tolerance development to morphine in rats prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine

  Saline Morphine Methadone Buprenorphine
   Mean ± SEM  
Number of offspring per litter 10.9 ± 0.2 10.5 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 0.3 10.2 ± 0.3
Fatality (%) 0.69 ± 0.33 0 0 7.1 ± 2.38**
Fatality occurred in the offspring (%) (P2-P10) 0.21 ± 0.14 0 0.56 ± 0.56 12.14 ± 7.02*
Body weight increase in the dams (g) (E3-E20) 148.1 ± 2.7 132.3 ± 4.2** 121.3 ± 3.3*** 136.4 ± 3.7*
Body weight of the offspring at birth (g) 6.8 ± 0.1 7 ± 0.1 6.6 ± 0.1 6.9 ± 0.1
Body weight of the offspring on day 7 (g) 14.7 ± 0.3 16.3 ± 0.5* 14.5 ± 0.4 13.5 ± 0.4*
  1. *Significantly different compared to saline group, p < 0.05
  2. **Significantly different compared to saline group, p < 0.01
  3. ***Significantly different compared to saline group, p < 0.001