Summary of Transwell migration assays. Cells transfected with EGFP (control), EGFP-tagged wtCaD, A1A2, A3A4, A1234 and D1234 were subjected to migration assays, and the migration activity (see Methods) was compared to that of untransfected cells. The relative migration activity for the A1234-transfected cells was about 13% of the control cells (EGFP), and the ratios of A1A2 and A3A4 were 49% and 47% of the control cells, respectively. It seems that both Erk and PAK contributed equally to the motility of these two types of cells and this effects are additive. The D1234 mutant had a relatively weak inhibitory effect on the motility of A7r5 cells. The error bars represent the standard deviations (SD) of 3 independent measurements. Single (*) and double (**) asterisks on the peaks denote P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively.