GTH enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with GTH for 24 hrs and incubated with fluorescent latex beads or CFDA-labeled apoptotic cells. Photographs for (A) Uptake of latex-beads and (B) Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells were taken at 4 hrs. The upper panel shows the images by light microscope and the lower panel by fluorescent microscope. Black arrows indicate the macrophages and white arrows the apoptotic cells. In parallel, flow cytometry was used to detect the phagocytosis of (C) apoptotic cells and (D) latex beads. The data was expressed as phagocytosis index indicating the percentage of macrophages containing ingested beads or apoptotic cells. (E) TG2 mRNA expression after GTH treatment. Values represent mean ± SEM (n = 3, ** = P < 0.001 compared with control).