Taurinergic neurons and taurine–dose response in salamander retina. Immunoreactive pattern shows that taurine labeling is present in rods, a few cones and displaced Off-bipolar cells (asterisks) in the ONL. It is also present in cell somas in the INL and axon terminals in the sublamina of the IPL (A); anti-taurine transporter labels rod axons and Off-bipolar cell axons in the sublamina a of the IPL (B). Whole-cell recording of taurine dose response currents from an isolated ganglion cell (C). Taurine dose-response curve and EC50 value were obtained from the third-order neurons.