Immunofluorescence for β-actin expression in injured spinal cord tissue sections. The injured spinal cord tissue sections were collected at day 1 (A,B), day 7(C,D), and day 14(E,F) after SCI, and then subjected to immunofluorescence for β-actin (red). The tissues were also subjected for nuclear staining using DAPI (blue). In general, cell debris with β-actin immunoreactivity (open arrowheads) and fragmented/damaged nuclei (inset in A) were exclusively detected in the lesion center (LC) at 1 day post SCI. However, numerous β-actin+ cells (arrows) were accumulated in the LC at day 7 and 14 post SCI. Noted that β-actin+ cells (open arrows) were detected in the distal area (white matter) to the LC at day 1, 7 and 14 post SCI. Scale bar in A-F, 50 μm. (G) Primary astrocytes and microglia prepared from neonatal rat cortical tissues were treated for 24 hours with proinflammatory factor, TNF-α and IL-1β (T/I) at the doses of 20 ng/ml. The total proteins were extracted, separated by SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by western blotting with anti-β-actin, anti-GFAP.