Time expression prolife of GFAP and CSPGs in the injured spinal cord. (A) The injured spinal cord tissue sections were collected at day 1, 7, and 14 after SCI. The tissue sections were subjected to immunofluorescence for GFAP (red). GFAP+ stellated cells (open arrows) were observed in the areas proximal to the lesion center (LC) or migrated into the LC at day 7 and 14 after SCI, and the GFAP+ cells were also immunoreactive with β-actin (insets). Note that cell debris with GFAP immunoreactivity (arrows) was detected in the LC at 1 day post SCI. Scale bar, 40 μm. (B). Total proteins were prepared from injured spinal cord tissues 0.5 or 1 mm rostral (r0.5 and r1) and caudal (c0.5 and c1) to the injury epicenter (LC) at day 31 post SCI (left panel). Sham-operated control was from animal only receiving laminectomy. Alternatively, the proteins were extracted from the lesion centers of spinal cord tissues at day 1, 3, 7 and 14 post SCI (right panel). The sample preparation was described in Materials and Methods. To examine the levels of CSPGs in the injured spinal cord tissues, western blotting was then performed using anti-chondroitin-4-sulfate antibody. Arrows indicate CSPGs or CSPG fragments with 40 kDa approximately.