VPA up-regulates Bcl-XL expression and inhibits cell death in vivo. VPA was injected into pregnant rats at E12 and embryonic whole brain lysates of control and VPA group at each embryonic day (E14 and E16) were obtained as described in materials and methods. (A) Western blot of apoptotic markers PARP-1 cleavage was reduced in VPA model at E16. IκBα level was decreased and Bcl-XL expression was increased in VPA group at E16. (B) Densitometric quantification of IκBα (n = 5) and Bcl-XL. (n = 7) (C) Bcl-XL mRNA level was measure by RT-PCR, which was increased at E14 and E16. Results are mean ± S.E.M. ***P < 0.001 vs. control.