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Table 2 Univariate analysis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk among 764 cohort subjects by age at recruitment, sex, education level, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cumulative arsenic exposure

From: Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and risk of arsenic-induced urothelial carcinoma in residents of southwestern Taiwan

Risk factors Count(%) Follow-up person-years UC Crude incidence
(per 105)
Age- Sex adjusted
HR (95%CI)
Age at recruitment a      
   < 50 390(51.1) 7251 11 151.7 ref
   50-59 270(35.3) 4508 22 488.0 3.38(1.64-6.98)**
   60+ 104(13.6) 1557 8 513.8 3.68(1.48-9.18)**
Sex b      
   Male 336(44.0) 5716 20 349.9 ref
   Female 428(56.0) 7601 21 276.3 0.77(0.42-1.43)
Education level      
   Illiteracy 256(33.5) 4270 22 515.2 ref
   Elementary 363(47.5) 6386 18 281.9 0.64(0.32-1.25)
   High school and above 145(19.0) 2662 1 37.6 0.11(0.01-0.83)*
P trend : 0.01
Cigarette smoking      
   No 595(77.9) 10535 33 313.2 ref
   Yes 169(22.1) 2781 8 287.7 0.67(0.27-1.64)
Alcohol drinking      
   No 660(86.4) 11595 33 284.6 ref
   Yes 104(13.6) 1721 8 464.8 1.40(0.58-3.35)
Cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L*yr)     
   0-9.9 206(26.9) 3792 1 26.4 ref
   10.0-19.9 188(24.6) 3379 7 207.2 5.96 (0.72-49.03)
   20.0+ 183(23.9) 2874 24 835.1 19.31 (2.46-151.24))**
   Unknown 187(24.6) 3271 9 275.1 7.11 (0.86-58.83)
P trend :0.0003
  1. a: Adjusted for sex; b: Adjusted for age in a-year increment
  2. UC: urothelial carcinoma; HR: hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval
  3. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.0001