Ceftriaxone protected against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. A-D, Nissl stains of coronal brain sections from rat sacrificed on P14 after left carotid artery ligation and subsequent two-hour hypoxia on P7. Panel A, B, C and D represents two coronal brain sections illustrating the brain injury score of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. E, Pre-treatment with ceftriaxone dose-dependently reduced brain injury scores and ceftriaxone with dosage 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. one-way ANOVA, p = 0.0016 (n = 5 in each group); *: p < 0.05. Sham denotes animals received left carotid artery exposure without ligation and followed by 2 hrs of hypoxic challenge. Saline refers to hypoxic-ischemic animals received saline injection.