Lutein but not zeaxanthin inhibits VSMC migration. VSMCs were seeded in the upper chamber precoated with collagen. The inserts were assembled with the lower chamber, which was filled with serum-free (basal) or PDGF-containing medium preincubated with vehicle or (A) lutein or (B) zeaxanthin (zea) for 30 min. After incubation for 3 h at 37°C, fixation was performed and nonmigrated cells were removed. Cells migrated to the underside of filter membrane were photographed and counted in high-power field (magnification, 100 ×) under the microscope. Right panels: a quantitative analysis of migrated cells. All experiments were conducted in duplicate. Cell migration was expressed as percentage of basal or control (n = 6-8). ***P < 0.001 versus control. NS: non significance.