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Table 1 Killing efficacy for a variety of microorganisms using A 425 nm- femtosecond pulsed laser (laser exposure time = 3.6 seconds)

From: Prospects for a novel ultrashort pulsed laser technology for pathogen inactivation

Microorganism Properties Load reduction
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Enveloped, single-stranded RNA 104
Influenza Virus Enveloped, single-stranded RNA 105
Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) Non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA 103
Murine norovirus (MNV) Non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA 103
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA 103
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA 105
M13 bacteriophage Non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA 105
Escherichia coli Gram negative 104
Salmonella typhi Gram negative 105
Listeria monocytogenes Gram positive 103
Enterobacter Sakazakii Gram negative 103