Effects of PSE on cell viability in AGS gastric cancer cells. Cell viability was measured using an MTT assay in AGS cells after treatment with multiple concentrations of PSE and DMSO (48 h and 72 h). Cell viability under basal conditions (i.e. no PSE and no DMSO) corresponds to 100%. The data shown are representative of three independent experiments that gave similar results. Bars, SD. * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, control versus PSE-treated cells.