Effects of PSE on cell cytotoxicity in AGS gastric cancer cells. Cell cytotoxicity was measured by a LDH leakage assay in AGS cells after treatment with multiple concentrations of PSE and DMSO (48 h and 72 h). Cell cytotoxicity under basal conditions (i.e. no PSE and no DMSO) corresponds to 100 %. The data shown are representative of three independent experiments that gave similar results. Bars, SD. ***p < 0.001, control versus PSE-treated cells.