Proposed mechanism of the inter-relationship between hepcidin and HJV expression during the inflammatory response, and the effect on iron flux. LPS is taken up by Kupffer cells via TLR-4 and induces TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. TNF-α suppresses HJV expression via a TNFRE within the HJV promoter, while IL-6 induces hepcidin expression via the STAT3 pathway. LPS also represses the expression of BMPs (2, 4, and 6), via an as yet unknown mechanism. Thus, iron sensing by the BMPs, HJV and BMP receptor involved in regulating hepcidin is abrogated whereas inflammatory signalling by IL-6 through hepcidin remains intact.