Analysis of the effects of activated protein C (aPC) in rats treated with protective antigen (PA), lethal toxin (LT), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The experimental outline is illustrated in panel A. The plasma D-dimer (B) and thrombomodulin (C) levels of PA-, LT-, or LPS-treated rats with and without aPC treatment at 0, 2, and 4 h following the PA, LT, or LPS treatments. The LPS treatments served as positive controls for the induction of coagulopathy (B-C, LPS groups: induction of D-dimer, thrombomodulin in B, C). In panels B and C, the levels for the vehicle group were set at 100 % for the normalization of the data. For the comparisons that are indicated in B and C, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001. For the comparisons to the vehicle group, † p < 0.05, †† p < 0.01, ††† p < 0.001. Data were collect from 3 experiments with 2 replicates (n = 6).