Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in DV-infected GM-Mϕ.GM-Mϕ is infected with DV directly (A), or after LPS priming(B). DV binding to CLEC5A recruits DAP12, which isphosphorylated by Src, and then activates Syk. Activated Syk induces thetranscription of IL-1β, IL-18, and NLRP3 to activate inflammasomeand caspase-1, leading to cell death (pyroptosis) and cleavage ofpro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. Secondary signaling, potassium efflux, andlysosome cathepsin B are also involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activationand the release of IL-1β and-IL-18 from DV–infectedGM-Mϕ. LPS priming further enhances the transcription of IL-1β(significantly), IL-18 (slightly), and NLRP3 (slightly), and furtherincreases the secretion of IL-1β. DV, dengue virus; NLRP, NLRfamily PYD-containing protein; LPS, lipopolysaccharides; IL-1β,interleukin -1beta.