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Table 1 A list of animal models of DR that are based on various species from zebrafish to monkeys

From: Animal models of diabetic retinopathy: doors to investigate pathogenesis and potential therapeutics

Animal model Method of induction Type of diabetes Characteristic findings References
Zebrafish
High glucose treatment Alternate immersing in glucose/water solution Type 1 - Thinning of IPL and INL [38, 39]
- Degeneration of PL
- BM thickening in retinal capillaries
STZ Intraperitoneal injection of STZ Type 1 - Thinning of IPL and PL [46]
Hypoxia Immersing in hypoxic chamber (10%) N/A - New vascular branches and sprouts [51, 52]
Mice and rats
STZ Intraperitoneal injection of STZ Type 1 - BM thickening in retinal capillaries [29, 35, 4145, 53]
- Apoptosis of neuronal cells in GCL
- Loss of pericytes in retinal capillaries
- Loss of amacrine cells in INL
- Increased vascular permeability
db/db mice Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 2 - BM thickening in retinal capillaries [5459]
- Loss of pericytes
- Apoptosis of neuroretinal cells
- Increased vascular permeability
Non-obese diabetic mice Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 1 - Apoptosis of ganglion cells in GCL [61, 62]
- Abnormal focal vascular proliferation
Akita mice Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 1 - Apoptosis of neuronal cells in GCL [45, 63, 64]
- Loss of amacrine cells in INL
- Acellular capillaries  
- Loss of pericytes
- Thinning of IPL and INL
- Increased vascular permeability
- Microaneurysm formation
- New vessels in OPL
Zucker diabetic fatty rats Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 2 - BM thickening in retinal capillaries [6567]
- Loss of ECs and pericytes
- Acellular capillaries
Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 2 - BM thickening in retinal capillaries [68, 69, 71]
- Microaneurysm formation
- Thinning of INL and PL
Goto-Kakizaki rats Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 2 - Apoptosis of ECs [7274]
- Decreased retinal circulation
Kimba mice Transgenic overexpression of VEGF165 gene N/A - Increased vascular permeability [77, 78]
- Retinal neovascularization
OIR Exposure to hyperoxia during early postnatal periods N/A - Increased vascular permeability [4749, 79]
- Retinal neovascularization
Akimba mice Crossing Akita mice with Kimba mice Type 1 - Thinning of PL [80]
- Loss of ganglion cells in GCL
- Capillary nonperfusion
- Retinal neovascularization
Diabetic Torii rats Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 2 - Large retinal folds mimicking TRD [8183]
- Massive hemorrhage in A/C
- Acellular capillaries
- Loss of pericytes
Dogs
Galactose-fed dogs Feeding a 30% galactose diet Type 2 - Acellular capillaries [85, 86]
- Microaneurysm formation
- Intraretinal hemorrhage
- NVD
OIR Exposure to hyperoxia during early postnatal periods N/A - Retinal neovascularization [50, 87]
- Peripheral retinal ischemia
- Vitreous hemorrhage
- Tractional retinal folds
Monkeys
Spontaneously diabetic Spontaneous hyperglycemia Type 2 - IRMA [88, 89]
- Microaneurysm formation
- Retinal hemorrhage
  1. A/C Anterior chamber, BM Basement membrane, EC Endothelial cell, GCL Ganglion cell layer, INL Inner nuclear layer, IPL Inner plexiform layer, IRMA Intraretinal microvascular abnormality, N/A Not applicable, NVD New vessels at the optic disc, OPL Outer plexiform layer, PL Photoreceptor cell layer, STZ Streptozocin, TRD Tractional retinal detachment.