DV2 infection of mice brain induces double-membrane vesicle formation. The same treatment as in Figures 1 and 2 was conducted in this study. The brain tissues were collected and investigated by TEM. (A) Mock group was treated with DMEM containing 2% FBS. The enlargement of the square region in panel (A, 12000X) is shown in (B, 25000X). (C) DV2-infected brain tissue of the suckling mice. The enlargements of the square regions in panels (C, 12000X) are shown in (D, 25000X) and (E, 25000X), respectively. Arrow points indicate the double-membrane vesicles representing the autophagosome-like vesicles. N: nucleus; V: double-membrane vesicle.