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Table 3 Representative miRNAs from patient tumor specimens as predictive markers for treatment outcome in cancer therapy

From: MicroRNA: a prognostic biomarker and a possible druggable target for circumventing multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy

Cancer type miRNA dysregulation Chemotherapeutic outcome prediction Reference
Metastatic breast cancer miR-26a ↑ - Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-26a and CDC2 (cell cycle regulator) are an optimal set of markers associated with favorable outcome on tamoxifen therapy, independently of traditional predictive factors (menopausal status, ER & PgR mRNA expression) [75]
- Mechanistic analysis showed that miR-26a repressed EZH2 to upregulate ER, thereby enhancing sensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy
CRC miR-181b↓ & let-7 g↓ Associated with responsiveness to 4th generation fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant therapy [76]
CRC miR-215↑ - miR-215 level generally downregulated in clinical CRC specimen [77]
- ↑miR-215 caused chemoresistance of HCT116 to methotrexate and tomudex
- No impact on treatment outcome from cisplatin and doxorubicin
- High level of miR-215 was found in CRC stem cells
Metastatic CRC miR-146b-3p↑ & miR-486-5p↑ - miRNAs level found to be more abundant in patients with mutant KRAS [78]
- Predictive of resistance to cetuximab (EGFR targeting monoclonal antibody)
Metastatic CRC miR-200b ↑ - In KRAS mutated tumors, ↑ miR-200b and ↓ miR-143 were associated with a good PFS in patients on cetuximab [79]
miR-143 ↓
- In wild-type KRAS patients, miRNA expression did not correlate with PFS in a multivariate model
GBM 5-miRNAs signature (miR-181d, miR-518b, miR-524-5p, miR-566, miR-1227) - Patients who had low risk scores from the 5-miRNA signature and received temozolomide treatment had better survival [80]
- Useful for identifying patients for more aggressive therapy
Hepatocellular carcinoma miR-26↓ Lower miR-26 is associated with shorter overall survival but a better response to interferon therapy [81]
NSCLC miR-21 ↑ Increased miR-21 in patients not responding to platinum-based chemotherapy [82]
Lung cancer miR-128b LOH Predictive of clinical response and prolonged survival following gefitinib treatment [83]
Ovarian cancer let-7i↓ Predictive of resistance to cisplatin [84]
Pancreatic cancer miR-21↑ - Predictive of resistance to gemcitabine, docetaxel, temozolomide and 5-fluorouracil [85, 86]
- Associated with shorter overall survival in the metastatic and adjuvant setting
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma miR-10b ↓ Lower levels of miR-10b is associated with improved response to multimodality neoadjuvant therapy. Likelihood of surgical resection, delayed time to metastasis and increased survival [87]
  1. Abbreviations: CRC = colorectal cancer; EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptor; ER = estrogen receptor; GBM = glioblastoma multiforme; LOH = loss of heterozygosity; NSCLC = non-small cell lung cancer; PFS = progression-free survival; PgR = progesterone receptor.