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Table 3 List of oxidative stress biomarkers and their methods of detection

From: Oxidative stress and its biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus

Free radicals and reactive species Markers/probes and detection methods
ROS/RNS Direct measurement ROS 1. Electron spin resonance (ERS) – Spectroscopy method
2. Fluorescence (2′,7′ dichlorofluorescein) - Flow cytometry/spectroflurometry
RNS 1. Ion electrode method
Indirect measurement Lipid 1. Malondialdehyde (MDA) – colorometric, flurometric, ELISA, HPLC
2. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) - colorimetric, flurometric
3. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) – GC- MS, HPLC
4. F2 isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2) – colorimetric, flurometric, ELISA
5. Lipid hydroperoxidation - Hexanoyl - Lys adduct (HEL) - ELISA, HPLC
6. Oxidized low density Lipoprotein – HPLC, ELISA
Protein 1. Carbonyl – colorometric, ELISA
2. 3-nitrotyrosine - GC-MS, HPLC, ELISA
3. Protein Thiol - colorimetric, ELISA
DNA 1. 8-Hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) - HPLC, LC, MC, ELISA
2. DNA Break - comet assay, flow cytometry
Antioxidant Antioxidant enzyme activity Super oxide dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalase, Glutathione reductase, Xanthine oxidase- ELISA, colorimetric method
Glutathione - HPLC, colorimetric/flurometric method
Antioxidant non-enzymes Ascorbic acid, α tocopherol, β carotene, Lycopene – colorimetric Zinc, Selenium, Mn, Cu, Fe – Flame Photometrry
Antioxidant capacity 1. Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) – colorimetric method
2. Triolox Equivalent antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) – colorimetric method
3. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) – colorimetric method
4. Asymmetric Dimethylarginie (ADMA) – colorimetric method