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Table 1 Characteristics of mammalian DGK subtypes

From: Diacylglycerol kinase as a possible therapeutic target for neuronal diseases

  MW(KDa) Localization Enzymatic property Function/Phenotype of KO References
α 80 thymus, spleen> > kidny, brain (oligodendrocytes) Ca2+, PS dependent R59022 sensitive activated by PIP3, PI(3,4)P2 T cell anergy tumor invasion insulin release [11, 25, 3337]
β 90 brain(CP > hip, cortex, olf) > adrenal gland > small intestine Ca2+, PS dependent activated by PI(4,5)P2 impairment of memory impairment of memory (mania-like) severe seizure [12, 2931, 38, 39]
γ 88 retina, brain(Cb, hip)> > other tissues Ca2+, PS dependent R59022 sensitive insulin release [13, 38]
δ 130 skeletal muscle > testis, colon Ca2+, PS independent type II diabetes EGF signaling, seizure [15, 24, 28, 40, 41]
η 130-140 testis > brain, lung, spleen > heart Ca2+ insensitive bipolar disorder (?), Ras-Raf-MEK signaling [16, 4245]
κ 142 testis > spleen, pracenta, Ca2+ insensitive hypospadias [20, 24]
ϵ 64 retina,brain,testis > ovary> > skeletal muscle heart Ca2 + independent selectively for arachidonoyl DG seizure [14, 46]
ζ 104 thymus > brain(Cb, hip, olf)> > skeltal muscle, heart, pancreas Ca2 + insensitive Mg2+, PS dependent T cell anergy, cell cycle control spine maintenamce [17, 26, 27, 33, 35, 47, 48]
ι 130 retina > brain (hip, CP, cortex, Cb, Dg) Ca2+ insensitive Ras GRP, Rap 1 signaling [19, 22, 49, 50]
θ 110 brain(Cb, hip)> > small intestine, liver etc. Ca2+ insensitive neurotransmitter release? [18]
  1. Cb; cerebellum, CP: caudate putamen, Dg; dandate gyrus, hip; hippocampus, Olf; olfactory bulb.