Increased PTER, MCP-1, RANTES and TGF-β1 expression in an
albuminuria model. HK-2 cells were treated with 1 mM HSA, and the total cellular RNA was isolated at different time points as described in Methods, and subjected to real-time PCR analysis for PTER (A), MCP-1 (B), RANTES (C) and TGF-β1 (D) expression. The mRNA expression levels were normalized to GAPDH, and the results are presented as mean ± SD. a, p < 0.05 in comparison with the control group.