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Table 1 Demography and tobacco habits of leukoplakia patients and controls

From: Association between risk of oral precancer and genetic variations in microRNA and related processing genes

Subjects and tobacco habits Control [N = 452] (%) Leukoplakia [N = 299] (%) p-value
Male 367(81) 263(88) 0.01
Female 85(19) 36(12)
Age (Mean ± SD) 48.5 ± 11 47.4 ± 10.4 0.18
Exclusive smokersa 175(39) 170(57) <0.001
Exclusive chewersb 185(42) 44(15) <0.001
Mixed habituésc 92(19) 85(28) 0.01
  1. aExclusive smokers have tobacco smoking habit only.
  2. bExclusive chewers have tobacco chewing/dipping habit only.
  3. cMixed habitués have both tobacco smoking and chewing habits.