Effect of FD conversion by PNP-AV with 50 pM docetaxel on PC-3 cell viability. (a) Cells treated with varying concentrations of FD or 2-FA were compared to their corresponding control groups treated with 0 nM concentrations on the same day, and significant differences are denoted by # (p < 0.05), * (p < 0.01), and ** (p < < 0.001). Cells treated with 50 pm docetaxel (shown) were compared to cells not treated with docetaxel (see Additional file 1: Figure S1) at the same concentrations of FD or 2-FA on the same day, and significant differences are denoted by ^ (p < 0.05), + (p < 0.01), and ++ (p < 0.001). Data presented as mean ± SE (n = 3). (b) Additional decreases in cell viability afforded by the addition of 50 pM docetaxel to the PNP-AV system efficacy, shown for prodrug titers for which docetaxel treatment influenced treatment outcome. Results shown as non-docetaxel treated % viability minus docetaxel treated % viability to obtain a measure of additional cell killing with docetaxel treatment that alone has no significant effect on cell growth. Data presented as mean ± SE (n = 6).