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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of CKD patients

From: Undercarboxylated osteocalcin as a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

  All CKD CKD I-II CKD III CKD IV CKD V P value
N 240 41 75 58 66  
Age, year 61.83 ± 11.61 58.84 ± 12.44 60.96 ± 10.85 62.83 ± 11.41 63.82 ± 12.57 NS
Male, n (%) 151 (62.92 %) 30 (73.17 %) 54 (72.00 %) 33 (56.90 %) 34 (51.52 %) < 0.01
BMI, kg/m2 23.68 ± 4.14 24.23 ± 4.35 24.64 ± 4.16 22.34 ± 3.54 23.26 ± 4.12 < 0.01
Smoke history, n (%) 49 (20.42 %) 6 (14.63 %) 14 (18.67 %) 16 (27.59 %) 13 (19.70 %) NS
MABP, mmHg 100.67 (93.00–110.83) 95.33 (90.00–104.58) 96.67 (91.67–108.33) 103.33 (93.33–113.33) 103.67 (96.67–115.83) < 0.05
FBG, mmol/L 5.03 ± 0.84 4.81 ± 0.62 5.26 ± 0.90 4.73 ± 0.75 5.15 ± 0.89 NS
Hemoglobin, g/dl 110.45 ± 31.26 135.79 ± 28.37 126.43 ± 26.54 108.58 ± 18.46 83.89 ± 18.45 < 0.01
Albumin, g/L 37.90 (33.25–40.50) 38.00 (32.10–42.50) 37.50 (35.00–41.50) 36.25 (32.50–39.50) 36.00 (32.05–39.10) NS
eGFR, ml/min/1.73m2 20.05 (12.43–49.32) 83.57 (71.28–108.35) 44.56 (37.72–53.52) 24.53 (19.35–26.42) 8.17 (5.84–10.52) < 0.01
Uric acid, mmol/L 467.51 ± 133.13 354.72 ± 114.87 445.16 ± 98.76 494.32 ± 112.53 509.58 ± 157.19 < 0.01
TC, mmol/L 4.74 (4.11–5.89) 4.83 (4.17–5.69) 5.15 (4.13–6.18) 5.31 (4.27–6.36) 4.36 (3.65–5.23) < 0.01
TG, mmol/L 1.69 (1.22–2.52) 1.75 (1.12–2.59) 1.84 (1.26–2.87) 1.78 (1.36–2.51) 1.52 (1.12–2.16) < 0.01
LDL-C, mmol/L 3.14 (2.40–3.97) 3.24 (2.58–4.07) 3.39 (2.57–4.31) 3.22 (2.71–4.14) 2.82 (2.31–3.49) < 0.01
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.25 (1.02–1.49) 1.36 (1.13–1.64) 1.31 (1.00–1.58) 1.23 (1.12–1.53) 1.15 (1.03–1.56) < 0.01
Calcium, mmol/L 2.18 ± 0.28 2.22 ± 0.34 2.15 ± 0.24 2.09 ± 0.31 2.14 ± 0.25 NS
Phosphate, mmol/L 1.50 ± 0.42 1.29 ± 0.37 1.35 ± 0.44 1.54 ± 0.50 1.71 ± 0.62 < 0.01
hs-CRP, mg/L 2.24 (1.00–4.10) 1.80 (1.00–3.50) 1.84 (1.00–4.87) 2.36 (1.00–3.56) 3.64(2.03–5.84) < 0.01
Drug use       
ACEI, n (%) 97 (40.42 %) 30(73.17 %) 31 (41.33 %) 23 (39.66 %) 13 (19.70 %) < 0.01
ARB, n (%) 81 (33.75 %) 17 (41.46 %) 28 (37.33 %) 19 (32.76 %) 17 (25.76 %) NS
CCB, n (%) 135 (56.25 %) 10 (24.39 %) 38 (50.67 %) 32 (55.17 %) 55 (83.33 %) < 0.01
β-blocker, n (%) 62 (25.83 %) 7 (17.07 %) 17 (22.67 %) 18 (31.03 %) 20 (30.30 %) NS
Statin, n (%) 47 (19.58 %) 5 (12.20 %) 23 (30.67 %) 11 (18.97 %) 8 (12.12 %) < 0.05
Phosphate binder, n (%) 58 (24.17 %) 0 (0 %) 7 (9.33 %) 13 (22.41 %) 38 (57.58 %) < 0.01
Active VitD, n (%) 14 (5.83 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 3 (5.17 %) 11 (16.67 %) < 0.01
  1. BMI body mass index, MABP mean arterial blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker, VitD vitamin D