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Table 1 Biomarkers of severe dengue disease

From: Biomarkers of severe dengue disease – a review

Class Biomarker Change Reference
1. Immune activation markers Cells Plasmacytoid dendritic cells Decrease 14
Lymphocytes Decrease 18, 20
Platelets Decrease 18, 32, 33
Cytokines IL-10 Increase 32, 40, 44
MIF Increase 39, 45
Chemokines CXCL-10 Increase 46
Complements C3a, C5a Increase 48, 49
Soluble receptors sCD4/8, sIL-2R, sTNFRII Increase 53
Proteases Tryptase and chymase Increase 28
2. Endothelial activation markers Mediators of endothelial Angiopoietin-1 Decrease 60
function Angiopoietin-2 Increase 60
Coagulation pathway von Willebrand factor Increase 63
components ADAMTS-13 Decrease 63
sThrombomodulin Increase 64, 65
Cell surface adhesion molecules sICAM, sVCAM Increase 20, 66, 67
Permeability mediators VEGF, VEGFRI Increase 28, 69
  VEGFRII Decrease 28, 69
3. Biochemical markers Lipids Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL Decrease 70
LPS LPB, CD14 Increase 38
Liver enzymes AST, ALT Increase 32, 33, 71
Serine protease IaIp Decrease 73
Other soluble substances Nitric oxide Decrease 33, 75
4. Genetic markers Gene profile Certain gene expression Decrease 77–79
Circulating cell free-DNA   Increase 81