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Fig. 2 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 2

From: Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative kidney damage and possible mechanisms: a mini-review

Fig. 2

A proposed model of MSG-induced ROS production in the rat kidney. Glutamate upon chronic MSG exposure may raise the activity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, a potential ROS generator. Additionally, an increased intracellular calcium level via glutamate receptors can stimulate free radical generation and lipid peroxidation. Inhibition of cystine uptake leads to decreased GSH levels that may further promote ROS-mediated renal cell damage

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