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Table 1 Host and viral factors associated with the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection

From: Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection from infancy to adult life -the mechanism of inflammation triggering and long-term impacts

Clinical events Associate factors References
Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion Host factors  
  Puberty onset [19, 20]
  Steroid 5-alpha reductase type II [19]
  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [26]
  Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B61 and HLA-DQB1*0503 [39]
  Interleukin-10 and 12 [42]
  Toll-like receptor-5 and -9 [43]
  Furin [68, 69]
  Program death 1 and program death ligand-1 pathway [46, 48, 70]
  Virus factors  
  HBV Genotype [4052]
  HBV mutant strains (core-promotor, precore, core gene) [54, 57, 58, 67]
  HBV viral load [26]
HBV viral titer decrement Host factors  
  Puberty onset [19]
  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [26]
  Virus factors  
  HBV mutant strains (core-promotor, precore, core gene) [54, 57, 58, 67]
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance/seroconversion Host factors  
  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [26]
  Gut microbiota [47]
  Menarche onset (in females) [20]
  HLA (DRB1*1301-02, DR2, DR7, DR*0406, B*4001, DPA1 and DPB1) [3338]
  Interleukin-10 and 12 [45]
  Tumor necrosis factor alpha [41]
  Toll-like receptor-4 [43, 47]
  Program death 1 and program death ligand-1 pathway [46, 48, 70]
  Breakthrough of immune tolerance [45]
  HBeAg seroconversion at childhood [45]
  Virus factors  
  HBV viral load [45]
  HBsAg titer [45]
HBeAg-negative hepatitis HBeAg seroconversion age [1012, 60, 75]
  HBV mutant [57, 75]