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Table 1 Summary of differential roles of ZNF proteins in cancer progression

From: Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression

ZNFs Aliases Role Cancer models Target genes Mechanism in tumorigenesis References
ZKSCAN3 ZNF306, ZNF309 Oncogene Colorectal cancer Integrin β4 ↑, VEGF ↑ Promotes cancer cell growth, migration, angiogenesis, proteolysis [40, 41]
Multiple myeloma Cyclin D2 ↑ Enhances cell proliferation [42]
Prostate cancer - Promotes cell migration [43]
Cervical, colon, ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma MAP1LC3B ↓, WIPI2 ↓ Suppresses autophagy and lysosome biogenesis [4]
ZNF322A ZNF388, ZNF489 Oncogene Lung cancer - Chromosome locus 6p22.1 is amplified [44]
ADD1 ↑, CCND1 ↑, p53 ↓ Promotes cell growth, migration and invasion [45]
ZNF304 - Oncogene Colorectal p14ARF ↓, p15INK4B ↓, p16INK4A Suppresses tumor suppressor genes through recruiting a co-repressor complex, including DNMT1 [48]
Ovarian cancer Integrin β1 ↑ Activates Src/focal adhesion kinase and paxillin and therefore prevents anoikis [49]
ZNF139 ZKSCAN1, ZNF36, ZSCAN33, KOX18 Oncogene Gastric cancer - Serves an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients [50]
Survivin ↑, x-IAP ↑, Bcl2 ↑, Caspase-3 ↓, Bax ↓ Promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis [51]
MMP-2 ↑, MMP-9 ↑, ICAM-1 ↑, TIMP-1 ↓ Promotes cell migration and invasion [52]
MDR-1/P-gp ↑, MRP1 ↑, Bcl-2 ↑, Bax ↓ Contributes to multi-drug resistance [53]
ZFX ZNF926 Oncogene Hepatocellular carcinoma Nanog ↑, SOX2 ↑ Confers self-renewal properties and chemoresistance [5]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma E-cadherin ↓ May be involved in EMT [54]
Glioma, lung, oral, breast cancer - Promotes cell proliferation and survival [55, 56, 58, 60]
Gastric cancer - Promotes cell growth through up-regulating ERK-MAPK pathway [57]
Gallbladder cancer - Promotes proliferation, migration and invasion potentially through activation of PI3K/AKT pathway [59]
Glioblastoma c-Myc ↑ Promotes glioma stem cell maintenance [61]
ZEB1 ZFHX1A, DELTAEF1 Oncogene Breast cancer ESRP2 ↓ Promotes TGF-β-induced EMT [68]
Glioma - SHP-2 up-regulates ZEB1 expression to mediate EMT, invasion and growth [69]
Cervix, breast cancer, osteosarcoma, adrenal carcinoma E-cadherin ↓ Down-regulates E-cadherin and cell polarity factors by recruiting co-repressor CtBP or BRG1 [70, 71]
Cervix, colorectal cancer - Activates genes involved in TGF-β/BMP signaling by recruiting p300 and P/CAF [72, 73]
Lung cancer E-cadhein ↑, ST14 ↑, Vimentin ↑ Confers EMT-related acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI [74]
Breast cancer VEGFA ↑ Promotes angiogenesis [75]
ZNF545 ZFP82 TSG Nasopharyngeal, esophageal, lung, gastric, colon, breast cancer - Induces cell apoptosis by repressing ribosome biogenesis and NF-kB and AP-1 signaling [76]
ZNF331 ZNF361, ZNF463 TSG Gastric cancer DSTN ↓, EIF5A ↓, GARS ↓, DDX5 ↓, STAM ↓, UQCRFS1 ↓, SET ↓, ACTR3 ↓ Inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion [78]
Gastrointestinal, esophageal cancer - Promoter hypermethylation is found in various cancer types [79, 80]
ZNF24 ZNF191, Kox17 TSG Breast cancer VEGF ↓ Inhibits angiogenesis [82, 83]
Gastric cancer - miR940 promotes cancer migration and invasion by targeting ZNF24 [84]
ZNF668 - TSG Breast cancer - Suppresses cell proliferation by promoting MDM2 autoubiquitination and therefore p53 stabilization [85]
Osteosarcoma - Involved in DNA repair by regulating chromatin relaxation and recruiting repair proteins to DNA lesions [86]
ZHX1 - TSG Gastric cancer - miR-199a-3p promotes cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis by targeting to ZHX1 [88]
CCND1 ↓, CCNE ↓, Bcl2 ↓, Bax ↑, cleaved Caspase-3 ↑ Induce G1/S arrest and apoptosis [89]
ZNF395 PBF, HDBP2 Oncogene Ewing’s sarcoma, osteosarcoma, renal cell carcinoma - Overexpressed in various cancers [9092]
Glioblastoma - Induced under hypoxia stress [93]
Skin and cervix cancer, glioblastoma IFIT1/ISG56 ↑, IFI44 ↑, IFI16 ↑ Supports inflammation and cancer progression [94]
TSG Liver cancer - miR-525-3p promotes cell migration and invasion by targeting ZNF395 [95]
Kaiso ZNF348, ZBTB33 TSG Breast and colon cancer CCND1 ↓ Suppresses cell proliferation [99]
Oncogene Breast cancer Vimentin ↑, Slug ↑, ZEB1 ↑ Involved in TGF-β-mediated metastasis [100]
Prostate cancer miR-31 ↓ Promotes cell migration and invasion [101]
Breast and colorectal cancer HIF-1α ↓ - [102]
  1. -, target not-determined