Skip to main content

Table 1 Biomimetic approaches for biomineralization/osseointegration and key information gathered

From: Biomimetic approaches with smart interfaces for bone regeneration

Biomimetic Substrate/Approaches for biomineralization and osseointegration/osteogenesis Key information Reference
1 Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and its composites ▪ Electrostatic interaction of the HAP surface with the calcium and the phosphate ions [105]
2 Bioglass and Bioglass-calcium phosphate composites ▪ Carbonate apatite layer formation
▪ Good osteointegration both in vitro and in vivo
[124126]
3 U HMWPE, Biodegradable starch/ethylene
vinyl alcohol blend, PU foams
▪ Formation of continuous and adherent Ca-P
▪ layer on the surface
▪ Needle-like crystals formed cauliflower like morphology
[110]
4 Surface functionalization by phosphorylation
▪ Bamboo [117]
▪ Chitosan [118]
▪ Poly (HEMA-co-MMA) [119]
▪ PVA [121]
▪ Regenerated Cellulose [122]
▪ increased number of nuclear sites and apatite formation
▪ Nucleation and porous HAP coating
▪ Direct bone bonding and elicited new bone formation
▪ promotes in vitro biomineralization and in vitro cell adhesion
▪ Increased surface roughness and leads to better binding of Calcium ions
[117]
[118]
[119]
[121]
[122]
5 ▪ Surface modification Polyethersulphone
▪ PMMA (ATP coupling) Electrospun PCL - gelatin
▪ Promotes nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate
▪ Uniform apatite layer formation upto 20 μm thickness
[111, 112]
[120]
[140, 141]
6 RGD and BMP integrated polymer matrices ▪ Structural integrity modulation and aligned biomineralization
▪ Enhance bone specific marker protein expression and thereby mineralization
[65]
[127]
6 Biodegradable Polymer Composites
▪ Viscose cellulose sponge
▪ Starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol blend (SEVA-C)
▪ Gelatin-poly(acrylic acid) matrix
▪ poly(lactide-co-glycolide)
▪ Compatible for tissue in-growth
▪ Attractive as scaffold for bone tissue engineering
▪ Promotes cell adhesion
▪ Feasibility of orientation by stretching
[143146]
7 ▪ Titanium metal
▪ Polished and gritted Titanium (Ti6Al4V)
▪ NaOH and heat treatment generates amorphous sodium titanate on the metal and induces bonelike apatite layer [114, 115]
8 Stem Cell based approaches ▪ In vivo osteogenesis
▪ Promising source for bone tissue engineering
[132136]
[142]