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Table 1 Biomimetic approaches for biomineralization/osseointegration and key information gathered

From: Biomimetic approaches with smart interfaces for bone regeneration

Biomimetic Substrate/Approaches for biomineralization and osseointegration/osteogenesis Key information Reference
1 Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and its composites ▪ Electrostatic interaction of the HAP surface with the calcium and the phosphate ions [105]
2 Bioglass and Bioglass-calcium phosphate composites ▪ Carbonate apatite layer formation ▪ Good osteointegration both in vitro and in vivo [124126]
3 U HMWPE, Biodegradable starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol blend, PU foams ▪ Formation of continuous and adherent Ca-P ▪ layer on the surface ▪ Needle-like crystals formed cauliflower like morphology [110]
4 Surface functionalization by phosphorylation ▪ Bamboo [117] ▪ Chitosan [118] ▪ Poly (HEMA-co-MMA) [119] ▪ PVA [121] ▪ Regenerated Cellulose [122] ▪ increased number of nuclear sites and apatite formation ▪ Nucleation and porous HAP coating ▪ Direct bone bonding and elicited new bone formation ▪ promotes in vitro biomineralization and in vitro cell adhesion ▪ Increased surface roughness and leads to better binding of Calcium ions [117] [118] [119] [121] [122]
5 ▪ Surface modification Polyethersulphone ▪ PMMA (ATP coupling) Electrospun PCL - gelatin ▪ Promotes nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate ▪ Uniform apatite layer formation upto 20 μm thickness [111, 112] [120] [140, 141]
6 RGD and BMP integrated polymer matrices ▪ Structural integrity modulation and aligned biomineralization ▪ Enhance bone specific marker protein expression and thereby mineralization [65] [127]
6 Biodegradable Polymer Composites ▪ Viscose cellulose sponge ▪ Starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol blend (SEVA-C) ▪ Gelatin-poly(acrylic acid) matrix ▪ poly(lactide-co-glycolide) ▪ Compatible for tissue in-growth ▪ Attractive as scaffold for bone tissue engineering ▪ Promotes cell adhesion ▪ Feasibility of orientation by stretching [143146]
7 ▪ Titanium metal ▪ Polished and gritted Titanium (Ti6Al4V) ▪ NaOH and heat treatment generates amorphous sodium titanate on the metal and induces bonelike apatite layer [114, 115]
8 Stem Cell based approaches ▪ In vivo osteogenesis ▪ Promising source for bone tissue engineering [132136] [142]