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Fig. 3 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 3

From: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment towards immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases: review of current clinical trials

Fig. 3

Mechanisms involved in MSC therapy for inflammatory pulmonary diseases based on preclinical animal studies. Immunomodulatory effects include enhancing bacterial clearance by direct killing and enhancement of macrophage phagocytosis; decreasing inflammatory response by modulation of macrophages towards an M2 phenotype and inhibition of neutrophil recruitment; as well as reducing damage to alveolar epithelium

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