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Table 2 Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α agonists on mitochondria

From: PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes

PPAR-α agonists Effects on mitochondria
Potential beneficial effects
 Fenofibrate [54, 55, 56, 58] Stimulates mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation
Improves mitochondrial oxidative capacity
Reduces mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and apoptosis
Upregulates mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2
 Gemfibrozil [57, 56] Reduces mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and apoptosis
Modulates mitochondrial biogenesis and apoptosis
 WY-14,643 [58] Upregulates mitochondrial uncoupling protein two
 Ureido-fibrate-5 [53] Induces mitochondrial CPT I expression
Stimulates mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation
Possible harmful effects
 Fenofibrate [59] Inhibits mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I activity
 WY-14,643, Gemfibrozil [60, 61] Induces the mitochondrial permeability transition
  1. CPT I, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I