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Table 3 Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists on mitochondria

From: PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes

PPAR-γ agonists Effects on mitochondria
Potential beneficial effects
 Rosiglitazone [65, 67, 68, 73, 74] Upregulates expressions of mitochondrial respiratory complex I ~ IV genes
Increases the relative number of mitochondria
Maintains mitochondrial potential to promote cell survival
Regulates mitochondrial pyruvate import
 Pioglitazone [66, 7375] Increases the mitochondrial DNA copy number
Increases mitochondrial biogenesis
Increase genes involved in the fatty acid oxidation
Regulates mitochondrial pyruvate import
Controls maximal mitochondrial respiratory rates
Possible harmful effects
 Troglitazone, Rosiglitazone, and Pioglitazone [69, 70] Alters mitochondrial respiratory function
Changes membrane permeability
Damages the mitochondrial structure
Inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity and cell respiration