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Fig. 3 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 3

From: Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway

Fig. 3

Genomic mutations and PD-1 signal inhibitors. (1) Genetic mutations in cancer cells create neo-antigens. (2) Neo-antigens are expressed on the surface of the cancer cells. (3) Recognition of a neo-antigen as a foreign body by an APC induces a T-cell response, and (4) consequently activates T cells and B cells. (5) Activated T cells release IFN-γ. (6) A cancer cell that is exposed to IFN-γ expresses PD-L1, thereby establishing an acquired immune resistance. In this particular tumor microenvironment, PD-1 signal inhibitors appear to be effective; thus, genome-wide mutation analysis (i.e., Mutanome) of cancer cells using next-generation sequencing technology and diversity analysis of the T-cell or B-cell repertoire (i.e., Immunome) are valuable next strategies for identifying predictive biomarkers [75]. APC, antigen-presenting cell

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