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Table 2 Association of clinical symptoms relative to leptospirosis dengue co-infection

From: Clinical predictors of dengue fever co-infected with leptospirosis among patients admitted for dengue fever – a pilot study

Patient characteristics   Dengue-leptospirosis co-infection (n = 11) Dengue infectionwithout leptospirosis (n = 257) P-value*
Age mean (years) 32.3 ± 9.4 30.8 ± 10.8 0.65
Day of fever onset mean (days) 4.2 ± 2.8 4.7 ± 1.8 0.48
Gender Male (%, n) 90.9(10) 57.6(148) 0.03*
Female (%, n) 9.1(1) 42.4(109)  
Warning sign Yes (%, n) 36.4(4) 39.7(102) 0.83
No (%, n) 63.6(7) 60.3(155)  
Headache Yes (%, n) 0(0) 4.3(11) 0.48
No (%, n) 63.6(7) 95.7(246)  
Dengue infection phase febrile 72.0(8) 74.7(192) 0.88
defervescence 27.3(3) 21.0(54)  
critical 0(0) 1.6(4)  
recovery 0(0) 2.7(7)  
Severe dengue Yes (%, n) 0(0) 1.2(3) 0.72
No (%, n) 100(11) 98.8(254)
Arthralgia Yes (%, n) 0(0) 6.6(17) 0.38
No (%, n) 100(11) 93.4(240)  
Vomiting Yes (%, n) 9.1(1) 15.6(40) 0.56
No (%, n) 90.9(10) 84.4(217)  
Epigastric pain Yes (%, n) 0(0) 7.8(20) 0.34
No (%, n) 100(11) 92.2(237)  
Abdominal pain Yes (%, n) 9.1(1) 2.3(6) 0.17*
No (%, n) 90.9(10) 97.7(251)  
Retro-orbital pain Yes (%, n) 0(0) 1.2(3) 0.72
No (%, n) 100(11) 98.8(254)  
Lethargy Yes (%, n) 9.1(1) 2.7(7) 0.22*
No (%, n) 90.0(10) 97.3(250)  
Shock Yes (%, n) 9.1(1) 0.4(1) 0.001*
No (%, n) 90.9(10) 99.6(256)  
Acute kidney injury Yes (%, n) 0(0) 0.4(1) 0.84
No (%, n) 100(11) 99.6(256)  
Gum bleeding Yes (%, n) 0(0) 2.3 (6) 0.61
No (%, n) 100(11) 97.7(251)  
Bleeding tendency Yes (%, n) 0(0) 3.5(9) 0.53
No (%, n) 100(11) 96.5(248)  
Hepatitis Yes (%, n) 0(0) 11.7(30) 0.23
No (%, n) 100(11) 88.3(227)  
  1. Bold numbers represent significant P value (<0.05)
  2. * Indicates variables with P value <0.25 which were selected for the mutiple logistic regression analysis