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Table 2 Effects of curcumin and curcumin nano-emulsion on seminal plasma essential and nonessential amino acids of male rats under protein deficient diet model

From: Beneficial effects of curcumin nano-emulsion on spermatogenesis and reproductive performance in male rats under protein deficient diet model: enhancement of sperm motility, conservancy of testicular tissue integrity, cell energy and seminal plasma amino acids content

Parameters (seminal plasma) Groups
Normal PDD C NCL NCH
Essential amino acids nmol/ml Arg 76.47 ± 0.67b 37.59 ± 0.85a 56.62 ± 1.104a, b 46.73 ± 0.42a, b 65.19 ± 1.36a, b
His 34.27 ± 0.43b 17.93 ± 0.35a 25.45 ± 0.61a, b 21.09 ± 0.15a, b 27.11 ± 0.76a, b
Isoleu 10.98 ± 0.16b 4.67 ± 0.012a 7.67 ± 0.12a, b 5.96 ± 0.07a, b 8.61 ± 0.11a, b
Leu 17.13 ± 0.20b 8.12 ± 0.16a 12.71 ± 0.07a, b 9.61 ± 0.11a, b 13.28 ± 0.28a, b
Lys 54.46 ± 0.24b 27.03 ± 1.03a 38.19 ± 0.997a, b 34.39 ± 0.98a, b 44.24 ± 1.16a, b
Met 23.15 ± 0.38b 11.90 ± 0.35a 17.02 ± 0.23b 12.45 ± 0.66a 17.14 ± 0.33a, b
Val 9.94 ± 0.09b 4.413 ± 0.13a 6.83 ± 0.2a, b 5.50 ± 0.12a, b 7.49 ± 0.13a, b
Nonessential amino acids nmol/ml Ala 238.8 ± 1.59b 157.7 ± 5.77a 234.5 ± 0.73b 204.5 ± 2.51a, b 287.8 ± 7.01a, b
Asp 863.7 ± 9.98b 479.4 ± 7.55a 935.9 ± 9.91a, b 666.7 ± 22.03a, b 939.6 ± 4.22a, b
Glu 295.6 ± 4.16b 161.4 ± 2.84a 296.2 ± 1.91b 237.8 ± 1.27a, b 349.6 ± 1.12a, b
Gly 553.6 ± 8.32b 316.2 ± 7.87a 557.0 ± 14.47b 459.5 ± 12.23a, b 588.4 ± 8.69b
Ser 786.5 ± 16.13b 416.3 ± 3.12a 657.2 ± 5.76a, b 591.8 ± 4.43a, b 788.1 ± 14.90b
Tau 6.87 ± 0.11b 4.73 ± 0.03a 6.64 ± 0.01b 5.77 ± 0.13a, b 7.26 ± 0.20b
Tyr 39.81 ± 0.82b 22.44 ± 0.08a 37.13 ± 0.35b 29.44 ± 0.34a, b 42.18 ± 1.16b
  1. aSignificantly different from normal control, bsignificantly different from PDD group