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Table 2 Comparison of applications of 3D printed microfluidic channels

From: The recent development and applications of fluidic channels by 3D printing

application pros cons references
molecule & protein detection various electrode materials integrated into microchannel; various measurement and functionalities; easy operation in all environments fabrication complexity with increased number of embedded sensors, large fabrication error width in paper channel [40, 59, 61, 128, 129]
cell deposition & simulation at the resolution of individual cells, the possible molecular interactions between cells, 3D concentration of gradients, precise control of fluids, reduced reagent/sample consumption, robust and automated procedure rather large fluidic channels, discrepancy between the printed and designed channel height [19, 63,64,65,66,67]
bacterial communities multiple population, no external force required, little physical damage to cells hard to predict and control the flow behavior in a channel with varying curvatures, small bacterial concentration in the detection [68,69,70, 130]
3D tissue constructs precise control over various cellular microenvironment, easy formation of desired structures, high throughput, reproducible, multi-layer structures trade-off between cell density of bioink and nozzle size [51, 74, 78,79,80,81,82, 85,86,87,88, 90, 91]
organ-on-a-chip accurate position of various tissue samples throughput is limited by large components with intricate geometries [15, 17, 92, 118, 131]
organ conformal biopsy rich diagnostic information, continuous monitoring, direct coupling unknown long-term effects for human [94]
Milli- & micro-fluidic reactionware rapid production and design optimization, quick and versatile material synthesis, high temporal stability low output volume, inability at high pressure and temperature [62, 95,96,97]