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Table 1 Overview of reports stressing that AA ameliorates the neuronal differentiation from NPC progenitors

From: Ascorbic acid alters cell fate commitment of human neural progenitors in a WNT/β-catenin/ROS signaling dependent manner

NPC models Differentiation factors Enhanced effects Refs.
Rat embryonic mesencephalic cell cultures 200 μM AA -Glial differentiation
-Neurite growth
-Dopamine neurons
[7]
Mouse embryonic stem cells 200 μM AA + SHH + FGF8 -Dopamine neurons
-Serotonin neurons
[8]
Long-term basic fibroblast growth factor expanded rat mesencephalic precursors 100 μM AA -Dopamine neurons [9]
Mouse embryonic stem cells 200 μM AA + SHH + FGF8 -Dopamine neurons [10]
Nurr1-transfected rat embryonic cortical progenitors 200 μM AA + B27 -Dopamine neurons [11]
Rat embryonic cortical precursors 200 μM AA -Astrocyte differentiation
-Neuronal differentiation and maturation
[12]
Mouse ventral mesencephalic precursors 200 μM AA -Astrocyte differentiation
-Dopamine neurons
-Gene responses related to cell fate determination, neuron development and maturation
[13]
bFGF/SHH-stimulated rat ventral mesencephalic precursors 200 μM AA -Dopamine neurons [14]
Rat ventral mesencephalic precursors 200 μM AA -Dopamine neurons
-Gene responses related to dopamine neuron marker, ROS response mediators and trophic factors
[15]
Mouse embryonic stem cells 200 μM AA + SHH + FGF8b -Dopamine neurons [16]
Rat ventral mesencephalic precursors 100 μM AA -Dopamine neurons
-Graft survival
[17]
Long-term expanded human fetal midbrain and cortical precursor cultures 200 μM AA + low O2 + longer diff. time -Neuronal yield
-Dopamine neurons
[18]
  1. AA: Ascorbic acid
  2. SHH: Sonic hedgehog
  3. FGF8: Fibroblast growth factor 8
  4. bFGF: Basic fibroblast growth factor