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Table 2 The H. pylori virulence factors associated with gastric adenocarcinoma

From: The impacts of H. pylori virulence factors on the development of gastroduodenal diseases

Region Virulence factor (High risk marker) Odds ratio Analytic method Reference
East Asia CagL Y58E59 (vs. non-Y58E59) 4.6 DNA sequencing [25]
Bab AB BA recombination (vs. others) 6.2 PCR [44]
Middle Asia vacA i1 (vs. i2) 10.9 PCR [34]
Middle East vacA s1 (vs. s2) 4.0 PCR [36]
vacA m1 (vs. m2) 2.5 PCR [36]
vacA s1/m1 (vs. s2/m2) 5.3 PCR [36]
vacA i1 (vs. i2) 15.0 PCR [36]
Asia EPIYA-D motif of CagA (vs. EPIYA-C) 1.9 DNA sequencing [30]
Western countries Positive serum anti-CagA Ab 2.0 Serum ELISA [19]
cagA+ (vs. cagA-) 2.4 PCR or Immunoblot [20]
≥ 2 copies of EPIYA-C motifs of CagA (vs. 1 copy) 3.3 DNA sequencing [30]
Western EPIYA-B motif of CagA (vs. EPIYT-B) 3.0 DNA sequencing [29]
vacA s1 (vs. s2) 5.3 PCR [20]
vacA m1 (vs. m2) 2.5 PCR [20]
vacA s1/m1 (vs. s2/m2) 4.4 PCR [20]
BabA-L (vs. BabA-negative) 33.9 Immunoblot [46]
BabA-H (vs. BabA-negative) 18.2 Immunoblot [46]
oipA “on” (vs. oipA “off”) 2.4 DNA sequencing or immunoblot [74]
  1. PCR Polymerase chain reaction