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Table 3 The H. pylori virulence factors associated with peptic ulcer disease

From: The impacts of H. pylori virulence factors on the development of gastroduodenal diseases

Region Virulence factor (High risk marker) Odds ratio Analytic method Reference
East Asia ≥ 2 copies of EPIYA-C motifs of CagA increases DU risk (vs. 1 copy) 2.3 DNA sequencing [30]
Southeast Asia cagA-genopositive 2.8 PCR [58]
vacA m1 (vs. m2) 1.5 PCR [58]
Middle East vacA s1 (vs. s2) 3.1 PCR [36]
vacA m1 (vs. m2) 1.8 PCR [36]
Asia dupA-genopositive increases DU risk 1.6 PCR [63]
Western countries cagA+ (vs. cagA-) 1.7 PCR or Immunoblot [20]
vacA s1 (vs. s2) 1.7 PCR [59]
vacA s1/m1 (vs. s2/m2) 2.0 PCR [20]
babA2-genopositive 2.1 PCR [45]
BabA-L (vs. BabA-negative) 54.8 Immunoblot [46]
BabA-H (vs. BabA-negative) 19.8 Immunoblot [46]
dupA cluster positive increases DU risk 2.1 PCR [66]
iceA1-genopositive 1.3 PCR [70]
oipA “on” (vs. oipA “off”) 4.0 DNA sequencing or immunoblot [74]
  1. PCR Polymerase chain reaction