The preclinical use of tumor xenograft mouse models for ESCC research. Different types of tumor xenograft mouse models are developed for ESCC research, which include subcutaneous tumor xenograft model, orthotopic tumor xenograft model and patient-derived tumor xenograft model (the diagram shows the development of this model in a subcutaneous way). These models are commonly used in preclinical research to understand disease mechanism, to perform preclinical drug testing and to develop biomedical imaging. Results derived from the use of these models can advance cancer research and can lead to better patient management in the aspects of cancer diagnosis, patient prognosis, new treatment development and development of new treatment response monitoring methods. The use of animals for research has been approved by the Committee on the Use of Live Animals in Teaching and Research (CULATR) of our institute.