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Table 1 Key features of tumor xenograft models for ESCC research

From: Tumor xenograft animal models for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Tumor xenograft models Key features
Subcutaneous Advantages
• easy to establish
• low cost
• palpable tumor for easy tumor size measurement
  Limitation
• incorrect tumor microenvironment
Orthotopic Advantage
• correct tumor microenvironment
  Limitations
• technique demanding
• high cost
• specialized imaging systems required for tumor size measurement
Patient-derived Advantage
• high resemblance to patient tumor
  Limitations
• long latency period
• limited engraftment rate
• high cost
• use of patient specimen
  1. This table lists the key features of different tumor xenograft models for ESCC research based on comprehensive reviews on tumor xenograft models for cancer research [8, 35]