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Table 1 The main natural polymers used in neural tissue engineering, biocompatibility in vitro/in vivo, and examples of their applications

From: Current and novel polymeric biomaterials for neural tissue engineering

Natural Polymer Biocompatibility in vitro Biocompatibility in vivo Application References
Pre-clinical Studies
 Collagen   Non-human primates Nerve guide [51, 52]
  Rats Hydrogel/scaffold [23, 28]
  Dogs Nerve conduits [53]
  Cats Nerve conduits [54]
  Mice Entubulation [57]
DRGs   Entubulation [58]
  Rats Entubulation [59]
 Fish Collagen rBMSCs   No influence on neural differentiation [63]
 Gelatin hC-MSCs   Electrospun conduits [66]
PC12   Electrospun conduits [67]
C17.2   Nerve conduits for Schwann cells [68]
RT4-D6P2T   Nerve conduits for Schwann cells [168]
PC12   Nerve conduits for Schwann cells [177]
  Rats Nerve conduit [178, 181, 182]
Allogeneic rMSCs   Scaffold [27]
Primary RSCs Rats Nanoparticles [75]
PC12   Hybrid Scaffold [184]
PC12   Bioink [77, 78]
 Elastin   Mice Thermally Responsive ELPs [193]
PC12   ELPs Drug Depot [194]
  Rats ELPs Intranasal Drug Delivery [195]
 Hyaluronic Acid   Rats Hydrogel [197]
NPCs from forebrain cortical neuroepithelium of E13.5 rats   Hydrogel [198]
C17.2 cells, ReNcells, GRPs   Hydrogel [199]
DRGs   Hydrogel [39]
NPCs   Hydrogel [28, 202, 203]
  Rabbits Nerve Conduit [189, 206]
  Rats Nerve Conduit [48]
RSC96   Nerve Conduit [192]
NSCs   Drug Delivery [93, 94]
PC12   Nanoparticles [207]
Cerebral cortices of Sprague–Dawley rats   Coating [208]
 Alginate   Cats Gel [209, 212, 213]
  Rats Gel [210]
  Rats Sponge [211, 215, 216]
PDLMSCs and GMSCs   Hybrid scaffold [217]
PC12   Hybrid scaffold [95]
NSCs   Hybrid scaffold [218]
  Rats Hybrid scaffold [108,109,110,111]
 Chitosan PC12   Hydrogel [26, 76, 120]
NPCs from forebrain cortical neuroepithelium of C57 fetal rats   Hydrogel [113]
NSCs   Hydrogel [114, 115]
Neuro-2a   Scaffold [116]
Schwann cells from Sprague-Dawley rats   Scaffold [117, 118, 123,124,125].
U373   Nanotubes [119]
BMSCs   Scaffold [121]
  Dogs Scaffold [122]
GFP+RG3.6   Micro/nano vehicle [126]
  Rats Micro/nano vehicle [34, 127]
  Mice Micro/nano vehicle [128]
hNSC   Bioink [129]
 Keratin   Mice Nerve guide [131, 132, 134]
RT4-D6P2T Mice Hydrogel [133]
  Rabbits Hydrogel [135]
  Primates Hydrogel [136]
Glial cells   Nanofibrous Scaffold [137]
 Silk NSCs   Hydrogel [30, 141]
  Rats Hydrogel [39]
DRGs   Hydrogel [139, 140, 143, 145, 147]
Primary Hippocampal Neurons   Scaffold [144]
PC12   Electrospun scaffold [146]
  Rats Electrospun scaffold [39, 40]
  Dogs Electrospun scaffold [24]
  Rats Nerve Guide [148]
  Rats Electrode Coating [149]
Glial Scarring   Electrode Coating [150]
NT2   Nerve guide (spider silk) [151]
NSCs   Matrix (spider silk) [152]
Clinical Studies
 Collagen   Peripheral nerve reconstruction NeuraGen® [55]
  Peripheral nerve reconstruction Neuromaix® [56]
  1. DRGs: dorsal root ganglia; rBMSCs: rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; hC-MSCs: human chorion mesenchymal stem cells; rMSCs: rat mesenchymal stromal cells; RSCs: rat Schwann cells; ELPs: elastin-like polypeptides; NPCs: neural progenitor cells; GRPs: human glial-restricted precursors; PDLMSCs: human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells; GMSCs: gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells; NSCs: neural stem cells; BMSCs: bone marrow stromal cells; hNSCs: human neural stem cells.
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