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Table 3 The main electroconductive polymers used in neural tissue engineering, biocompatibility in vitro/in vivo, and examples of their applications

From: Current and novel polymeric biomaterials for neural tissue engineering

Electroconductive Polymer Biocompatibility in vitro Biocompatibility in vivo Application References
Preclinical Studies
 PPy PC12   Electrospun nanofibers [19, 182]
PC12 Rats Films [20]
PC12 Rats Nerve conduit [183, 184]
hNSCs Rats Hydrogel 185, 186]
PC12   Electrodes [187]
Auditory neurons from Albino-Wistar rats   Electrodes [188]
Primary murine cerebellar glial culture   Vehicle for drug delivery [190]
PC12   Vehicle for drug delivery [154]
  Rats Vehicle for drug delivery [191]
 PANi PC12   Electrospun nanofibres [193]
  Rats Nerve conduit [38, 194]
NSCs   Hydrogel [195]
PC12   Hydrogel [31]
  Rats Electronic patch [196]
 PEDOT   Rats Electrodes [197, 198]
  Mice Electrodes [46]
Neurons from E18 Sprague- Dawley cortices   Electrodes [199]
  Rats Electrodes [200, 201]
ReNcell VM   Substrate [202]
P19   Substrate [203]
 InP Primary cell cultures from hippocampal regions of rats   Nanowire scaffolds [204]
  1. PPy: polypyrrole; PANi: polyaniline; PEDOT: Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene); InP: indium phosphide; hNSCs: human neural stem cells; NSCs: neural stem cells.