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Fig. 5 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 5

From: Pathobiont release from dysbiotic gut microbiota biofilms in intestinal inflammatory diseases: a role for iron?

Fig. 5

Schematic diagram illustrating the complex pathogen-commensal-mucus-tissue interactions discussed in this review. Microbiota biofilm disruption and pathobiont dispersion cause diseases resulting from microbiota dysbiosis. The data collected to support this model focus on enteropathogen-induced microbiota dysbiosis, and the microbiota disruptions reported in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and colo-rectal cancer. 1) Biofilm fragments of the microbiota cross the mucus barrier and adhere to the epithelial surface. 2) Planktonic bacteria dispersed from the microbiota biofilm may act as virulent pathobionts; adherent and motile pathobionts release pathogenic compounds (ie hemolysin, hlyE gene), and express genes involved in epithelial adhesion (eg fimA, sfmF, fliD). 3) Transformation of commensal microbiota bacteria into pathobionts is enabled at least in part through microbial uptake of excess iron from the intestinal environment. 4–5) Pathobionts translocate through the epithelium paracellularly [4] and transcellularly [5]. 6) Pathobionts activate host immunity to cause post-infectious and inflammatory disorders, or to exacerbate and/or cause inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, or to induce colorectal cancer

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