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Table 3 Novel compounds that target connexins to inhibit metastasis

From: Emerging roles of gap junction proteins connexins in cancer metastasis, chemoresistance and clinical application

Name Cancer Type Description Ref.
Metastasis inhibitor-18 (MI-18) Melanoma Inhibited Cx26-mediated GJIC and metastasis. [107]
Distilled fraction of camellia oil Melanoma Inhibited Cx26-mediated GJIC and metastasis. [108]
MAbE2Cx43 Glioma A monoclonal antibody targeting the second extracellular loop of Cx43. Decreased tumor burden and increase survival. [53]
GJ vesicle Breast Connexin-rich membrane vesicle derived from Cx43-overexpressing HeLa or MDA-MB-231 cells. Decreased cell migration. [109]
αCT-1 Breast A 25 amino acid peptide drug that mimics a cytoplasmic region of Cx43. Enhanced Cx43-GJIC, leading to improved efficacy of tamoxifen and lapatinib. [112, 113, 115]
TAT-Cx43266-283 Glioma A cell-penetrating peptide based on Cx43 (amino acids 266–283). Inhibited cell migration and invasion. [118]
PQ1 Breast Increased Cx43 and decreased Cx46 expression. [121]
4-OH-tamoxifen Breast Decreased Cx43 expression and migration. [122]
Fulvestrant Breast Decreased Cx43 expression and migration. [122]
Ginsenoside PTC Increased Cx31 expression, leading to decreased cell proliferation. [81]
  1. GJIC Gap junctional intercellular communication, PTC Papillary thyroid cancer