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Fig. 2 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 2

From: Autophagy: roles in intestinal mucosal homeostasis and inflammation

Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the role of normal autophagy in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa includes several types of epithelial and immune cells. This schematic illustrates the importance and function of normal autophagy in the intestinal mucosa. Autophagy is critical in preventing the invasion and dissemination of pathogens (1) and maintaining barrier integrity (2). Autophagy regulates the secretion of AMPs from Paneth cells (3), the secretion of mucins from goblet cells (4) and the differentiation of EE cells in intestinal epithelial lining. Autophagy is involved in different immunological functions such as cytokine secretion (5), pathogen clearance by macrophages (6), antigen presentation by DCs (7), effector and memory T cell development (8), and secondary antibody response. The process of autophagy can regulate the interaction between the host and the gut microbiota (9). Autophagy also helps to maintain the balance between harmful and beneficial bacteria of the gut (10)

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