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Fig. 1 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 1

From: Implications of altered NAD metabolism in metabolic disorders

Fig. 1

NAD metabolism has a potential protective effect against various metabolic diseases through redox reactions, sirtuins, and possibly PARPs. NAD is a co-enzyme that mediates various redox reactions in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. It also serves as a substrate for PARPs and sirtuins and regulates various biological pathways, including energy metabolism, gene expression, DNA repair, and cellular stress response

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